Small-scale forestry provides important environmental protection, landscape conservation and rural development benefits as well as timber production in many countries. However, small-scale forestry faces many challenges in developed and semi-developed countries, especially associated with aging, declining birthrate, depopulation, and unemployment in rural districts. In order to establish sustainable small-scale forest management and to succeed it to future generations, with some countries are responding by developing policy measures such as structural reforms of fragmented forest land, consolidation of forest practices, concentration of governmental subsidies and enhancing the role of forest owners’ cooperatives.
In many countries, small and fragmented forestland ownership is quite common. In some countries, communal forest ownership as a residue from feudal era is still alive and has been managed by rural community. In one hand, such communal forests or commons may be considered as a pre-modern and inefficient style of ownership and which are likely to disappear under the market economy. On the other hand, communal forests offer a variety of possibilities for conservation of ecological landscapes or healthy rural development, which we are eager to achieve in modern society.
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